Power Calculations Worksheet

Polar provides generator and power systems that are configured to meet our customers’ needs by matching our various sub-systems and components against our customer’s specific program requirements. An “emergency generator” is a generator whose sole function is to provide back-up power when electric power from the local CALCULATION WORKSHEET Company Name. Unit 8 - Electric Circuits. Powers of Monomials Calculator. To select TVM worksheet (Chapter 2) Page 20 Variables” on page 22. Find the points on the curve y xx x321 where the tangent is horizontal. True power consumption. In a series circuit, the amperage at any point in the circuit is the same. pdf), Text File (. Please make sure you are in the correct subject. Poweris a measure of how much work is done in a certain time. How To Create A Loan Analysis Worksheet in Excel A Loan Analysis is a method of ensuring that the loans created are made on feasible terms to clients and that they can and will pay them back. Each worksheet is randomly generated and thus unique. Worksheet 3-2—Work and Mechanical Advantage Page 1 Science 9-Physics Worksheet 3-2—Work and Mechanical Advantage 1. Voltage Drop Calculations Ratings of Conductors and Tables to Determine Volt Loss With larger loads on new installations, it is extremely important to consider volt loss in mind, otherwise some very unsatisfactory problems are likely to be encountered. In general: This formula tells us that any number, except 0, raised to the power zero has a numerical value of 1. In this calculator/table, you may enter two of the four factors in Ohm's Law. About This Quiz & Worksheet. 00 x 108 m/s h = 6. Calculate the work done by a 2. The worksheet takes the grouper logic. STUDENT WORKSHEET: Force and Acceleration Exercises. This page includes Percents worksheets including calculating percentages of a number, percentage rates, and original amounts and percentage increase and decrease worksheets. Exponent worksheets based on basic pre-algebra and algebra skills, laws of exponents or indices include product, quotient and power rule and more. Current & Charge Calculations Worksheet I = t t is s (seconds) 1. Power is defined as the __the rate at which work__ is done. Worksheet 2. 25 m against a force of 23 N. 00 C of charge passes through a pocket calculator’s solar cells in 4. Shop Our Entire Storefront Securely Here. While LEP calculations must be submitted to L&I, use of this worksheet is not required. System Sizing Worksheet Use Wholesale Solar's easy worksheet to figure out what a professionally installed solar electric system might cost. ERP CALCULATION WORKSHEET Use to calculate your repeater effective radiated power (ERP). The voltage of the battery is 3 V. It can be used to select a proper power supply unit for your system. Calculator Money Problems (Suzanne Cox). Your bicycle has a mass of 9. Answers are on the 2nd page of the pdf. Use this calculator to estimate weekly child support payments and produce forms for use in court. 0 Scope This SOP is applicable for validation of Microsoft Excel worksheets to be used for analytical calculations in QC lab. Electrical Energy Extra Questions. To lay down a procedure for validation of Microsoft Excel worksheets to be used for analytical calculations. We are honored to serve the largest community of process improvement. Electrical Power Systems Engineering - covers common design calculations from electrical power systems engineering; Worksheets marked with use PTC Mathcad premium features, otherwise they are Express compatible. Carlita, Tom, and Jamal are having a contest to see who can build the best pulley. RUG-IV 66-Group Model Calculation Worksheet for SNFs Page 1 of 29 October 12, 2010 The purpose of this RUG-IV Version 1. This worksheet is a tool to help with LEP calculations, not a required form. Welcome to Therapist Aid. Press z Listed are the mode settings for your calculator. Calculating temporary power from multiple panels for multiple loads. This article was tagged: ups calculator , calculate ups size required , how to size a ups battery backup , server ups calculator , ups load calculator , ups backup power calculator. Power Calculations. 26 sq ft per plant. This worksheet will focus on determining your running and starting watt needs. Easy Percentage Calculator. Berkeley’s calculus course. Power as a Rate Quantity: 3. Once you've turned on manual calculation, you can click "Calculate Sheet" in the Calculation section of the Formulas tab, or press Shift+F9, to manually recalculate the active worksheet. Residential Load Calculation Worksheet The residential load calculation worksheet calculates the electrical demand load in accordance with Article 220 of the 2017 National Electrical Code. Information offered by this generator power calculation page, though a useful tool for general estimating, requires consideration of circumstances specific to your application including, but not limited to: electric motor efficiencies (or lack-there-of), altitude, derating of generator power based upon fuel type, prime power versus standby. The power consumption calculation will determine how much the PLC panel needs an electrical voltage feeder. FLEX-6000 Full Duplex Power Calculation Worksheet Description Package Info Attached Files This worksheet will assist in calculating the transmitted power output that the SCU will be exposed to when operating in full duplex (FDX) mode to ensure that the radio will not be exposed to excessive signal levels which may damage the radio. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category - Power Calculations. Off-grid Energy Calculator Sizing your Battery Bank. Total Power Calculation over gears/speeds. Then, simply click on each section and fill out the corresponding form that slides down. Free worksheets from K5 Learning. Calculate Power, Current, Voltage or Resistance. docx 1 Worksheet 9. Tipping is based on this amount. Welcome to the powers of ten math worksheets page at Math-Drills. Well, the first thing to do is calculate the wattage for each device. 00 x 108 m/s h = 6. The NEC covers commercial calculations in Art. Coyote puts 3402 J of energy into the pulley while the pulley does 2938 J of work. OCAF Worksheet Instructions-REV 4-6-09 3 L Multiply the debt service (K) by the portion of the overall rent potential for the expiring Section 8 contract (J) in order to subtract the correct amount of debt service from the rent potential. 1 Electrical Power and Energy 1. Sankey Diagram Animation - Television. You can use calculator but you must show set up for all math calculations. SCIENCE 8 – STATES OF MATTER WORKSHEET NAME: Vocabulary Contracts Kinetic molecular theory Move around quickly State of matter Expands Mass Slide past each other Vibrate. These worksheets also cover calculating fractions, decimals and numbers based on given percentages. Sign in Sign up. You can learn more about these standards here. 1 moles of magnesium? 5) How many moles are in 2. Reorder# WTG1110 I 2 3 Select the items you wish to power at the same time. This calculator is considering only power and antenna gain. Long division worksheets from K5 Learning. Power is defined as the __the rate at which work__ is done. 3 How do you calculate electrical power? In this skill sheet you will review the relationship between el ectrical power and Ohm’s law. In pre-beta versions of Windows 7, Calculator also provided a Wages template. The PowerPlay Power Analyzer has access to the implemented design details to produce more accurate results. The formula for calculating power if you are given a magnetic field is sub 43. Search Search. Calculator That Can Solve For X. 9 Characteristics of Electricity – Measuring Electricity Resistance Calculations Worksheet I is A (amperes) 1. , temporary help services workers). Quickly access your most used files AND your custom generated worksheets! Please login to your account or become a member and join our community today to utilize this helpful feature. Calculation of battery bank capacity, c-rate, run-time, charge and discharge current Calculator. INTRODUCTION TO UNIT 1—ELECTRICIAN'S MATH AND BASIC ELECTRICAL FORMULAS. CHAPTER 7 - Integration. Pupils use power/work/time equation to calculate missing variables. Most light bulbs and modern appliances and devices have their wattage demands marked clearly on the device. 025 kg pencil 0. Choose a specific grade level below to view all of our math worksheets available for that level. This worksheet follows the logic. 626 2 x 10-34 J-s (or J/Hz). I Hobbes, the stuffed tiger, has a mass of 31. 5% of peak) beam diameter. Most health care professionals become comfortable with one method and use that method exclusively. Carlita, Tom, and Jamal are having a contest to see who can build the best pulley. This program is intended for approximate far-field calculations. Download or update the app from Google PlayTM, Windows Phone Store. Turn it on: Press É II. What power is supplied to the starter motor of a large truck that draws 250 A of current from a 24. Follow Kiplinger. You will use this information to determine the size of solar power system you will need. Multithreaded calculation can substantially reduce worksheet calculation time. Put your presentation title or confidentiality info here. Consumer Math Worksheets. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category - Power Calculations. angle at which work d. Knowing your power requirements and the time of year you want to use the system is vital to this step. To use the Optical Power Budget Calculator select a launch power and receiver sensitivity, then enter values for other required information (Link Length, Number of Patch Points, etc. 4 N force pushing a 400 g sandwich across a table 0. This paper will explain how to determine the maximum fiber optic distances attainable using media converters in various network environments. Cable is calculated on current capacity 2. Worksheet 1:8 Power Laws Section 1 Powers In maths we sometimes like to nd shorthand ways of writing things. Equation power = energy E or P = time t Solve These 1. Texas Instruments Calculator User Manual 1/6) is a complex number, you can only raise a negative number to an integer power or the reciprocal of an odd number. Power Calculations. Also, free downloadable worksheets on these topics. 1; draw a graph of potential difference versus current and show the calculation of the slope of the. Estimates are based on your roof, electricity bill, and actual offers in your area. 1 x 10-5 in decimal notation. Here is a little information to help you calculate a devices wattage. Start by looking over the “Light Pollution and Energy” poster. FLEX-6000 Full Duplex Power Calculation Worksheet Description Package Info Attached Files This worksheet will assist in calculating the transmitted power output that the SCU will be exposed to when operating in full duplex (FDX) mode to ensure that the radio will not be exposed to excessive signal levels which may damage the radio. You can customize many aspects of each worksheet. ) Also try the Fiber Optic Product Selector Guide. warning standard mandatory notice and consent provision for all dod information system user agreements by signing this document, you acknowledge and consent that when you access department of defense (dod) information systems:. Consider your batteries as a bank account -- you cannot take out more than you put in plus the amount with which you started. 0! PowerPay will give you the tools to develop a personalized, self-directed debt elimination plan. Most people with electrical experience have heard that power equals amps times volts. PowerSupplyCalculator. We help businesses of all sizes operate more efficiently and delight customers by delivering defect-free products and services. CALCULATING POWER Name: Date: Use this worksheet to get extra practice doing the calculations in Math Connect: Using a Formula to Calculate Power. Power is defined as the __the rate at which work__ is done. You may also use any of these materials for practice. Load Power Factor = 1. Purchasing power parities (PPPs) are the rates of currency conversion that try to equalise the purchasing power of different currencies, by eliminating the differences in price levels between countries. To select TVM worksheet (Chapter 2) Page 20 Variables” on page 22. Number revision from GCSE Maths Tutor. So please correct the formula For single phase S= v×I Three phase S=√3xvxI. 50 x 10-3 M KOH solution? (Hint: this is a basic solution - concentration is of OH-). Display both signals on the oscilloscope at once using the A & B display buttons. Graphically, power functions can resemble exponential or logarithmic functions for some values of x. Sign in Sign up. If your deciding factor is based on its power source, Lowe's carries propane generators, diesel generators, electric generators, natural gas generators, inverter generators or generators powered by solar panels. The logarithm of a product is the sum of the logarithms of the numbers being multiplied; the logarithm of the ratio of two numbers is the difference of the logarithms. Calculating Energy Costs The abbreviation for kilowatt hour is kWh and is what the power company charges customers for. Physics Worksheet Work and Energy Section: Name: Mr. Simplifying Radicals Worksheet. This calculator is a tool to help you determine the model and quantity of Trojan batteries needed for your renewable energy or backup power system. The multiplier in each problem is a power of ten between 1 and 1000. Since 1996, Go Power! has provided solar power solutions to RVers, campers, and boaters. Consumer Math Worksheets. These worksheet produces 12 problems per page. 11-12 boys vs. UNIT 1 GCSE PHYSICS Energy Transfers and Efficiency Complete the table of energy transfers shown below : These diagrams give us a very clear picture of an energy transfer situation. The Index Convention for Roots - The nth root of a number is the number to the power of 1/n. Work, Power and Energy Worksheet. Simple to use Ohm's Law Calculator. Electric power calculator calculation general basic electrical formulas mathematical voltage electrical equation formula for power calculating energy work power watts calculator equation power law current charge resistance converter ohm's law and power law power formulae formulas understandimg general electrical pie chart two different equations to calculate power electricas ohms law audio. This calculator allows you to evaluate the properties of different statistical designs when planning an experiment (trial, test) utilizing a Null-Hypothesis Statistical Test to make inferences. OCAF Worksheet Instructions-REV 4-6-09 3 L Multiply the debt service (K) by the portion of the overall rent potential for the expiring Section 8 contract (J) in order to subtract the correct amount of debt service from the rent potential. pdf), Text File (. RSMeans data is North America's leading construction estimating database available in a variety of formats. Click on the 'print' button to print a pupil worksheet and an answer sheet. Physical Science Worksheets and Printables. What is the potential difference across an electrical load that has a resistance of 4 Ω and a current of 3 A. These worksheet produces 12 problems per page. The motor's power output is 56·25 Watts. The following calculations are included in the website, requires minimal training and take seconds to perform. This worksheet gives students practice on calculating the tip amount. See for example Hypothesis Testing: Two-Sample Inference - Estimation of Sample Size and Power for Comparing Two Means in Bernard Rosner's Fundamentals of Biostatistics. Efficiency Questions. VA (Use default value if this calculation is for your main service, change to 0 if you're calculating for a sub-panel that won't be feeding a washer) Electric Furnace load : VA (If you have more than one furnace, just add their VA together. Finally, click on the Calculate button for the pure ERP and EIRP. we correctly reject it). Free trigonometry worksheets to download are in this site. {{ metatags. Roof Mount Systems a. CHAPTER 7 - Integration. Optical Power Budgets The key to network distance is Optical Power Budget: the amount of light available to make a fiber optic connection. The nameplate rating of all appliances that are fastened in place, permanently connected to. I also have a tutorial that shows how to use Microsoft Excel (or any other spreadsheet) to solve the same problems as you might on a financial calculator. Load calculations 2. DC Voltage – 216 for 3 KVA 2. A battery charger for a 6 Volt camcorder battery has 4000 turns on its primary coil and 100 turns on its secondary. LOSS OF EARNING POWER (LEP) CALCULATIONS Injured Worker Claim Number Payment Period From Through Number of Calendar Days See next page for calculation information. Units are capable of recharging 40AH battery max. It is very important in solving problems related to growth and decay. Three Phase Load Calculation Tool Author: dunkelj Keywords: 3 phase calculator, load calculation, three phase, 3 phase, find total power Last modified by: Knepp, Mindy Created Date: 5/25/2011 11:58:17 AM Company: Spectrum Control Inc. Includes looking at appliances and using the power equation. The multiplier in each problem is a power of ten between 1 and 1000. How many kilowatts is this? b. Just enter 2 known values and the calculator will solve for the others. com is an online resource used every day by thousands of teachers, students and parents. Unit 8 - Electric Circuits. 0 grams of water? 2) How many grams are in 3. Be sure to show all calculation work in the space provided. INTRODUCTION. Please enter voting weights, with their multiplicities. It is the basis of everything from a personal savings plan to the long term growth of the stock market. What is the electric power consumed by the circuit? Use the equation: P = I x V 2. of Living Space 1-15 kW Electric Range 3- Small Appliance Branch Circuits 1- 5 kW Wall Mounted Oven. An excellent resource for all parents as well as teachers, a worksheet is a great way for them to gauge how well kids know the subject. So please correct the formula For single phase S= v×I Three phase S=√3xvxI. Design Your Solar Power System Now!. amount of work which b. 7 moles of Na 2 O? 3) How many atoms are in 14 moles of cadmium? 4) How many moles are in 4. 0 grams of water? 2) How many grams are in 3. 5 N on a book to slide it across a table. Work and Power. Power is a rate at which work is done, or energy is used. Then the free budget planner worksheet will automatically show your income and expenses and if you have a surplus or deficit at the end of each month. Product of Powers Property Power of a Power Property Power of a Product Property. Diagram of the speed of sound of Water and Steam. Using the power & sample size calculator. In a series circuit, the amperage at any point in the circuit is the same. year 5 maths worksheets. Power Calculations. The larger a number is, the larger the power of 10 required to represent it. Some of the worksheets displayed are Healthcare math calculating dosage, Study guide with sample questions dosage calculation, Dosage calculations conversion work, Drug dosage calculations, Dosage calculations iv preparation work, Fundamentals of mathematics for nursing, , Healthcare math calculating iv flow. Well, the first thing to do is calculate the wattage for each device. Fault level withstand is calculated (and cable size increased if necessary). Skip to content. Our UPS Sizing Worksheet will help you get the job done right. Calculating Your Energy Consumption How to calculate HP Workstation energy consumption: With the correct tools, it is easy to calculate your energy consumption. Work, Power and Energy Worksheet. Free Online Solar Panel Calculator & Solar Power Calculator for Designing Off-Grid Solar Power Systems and On-Grid Solar Panel Systems. Welcome to the powers of ten math worksheets page at Math-Drills. The home affordability calculator from realtor. DO NOT MAIL THIS WORKSHEET. Start by looking over the "Light Pollution and Energy" poster. For that, you can make use of this online powers of monomials calculator to calculate the monomial expression with ease. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category - Power Calculations. Formula Method Each method will allow an accurate calculation of the medication dosage. Think of these as parent functions too. By Nerds, For Nerds. 25 m against a force of 23 N. For some real-life applications of power, check out the cycling wattage calculator!. 15 Elegant Science 8 Density Calculations Worksheet Cross from molarity calculations worksheet , source:xibiouz. Mission 8 - Transport PDF 880K. The growth and decay may be that of a plant or a population, a crystalline structure or money in the bank. Solar Electric System Sizing Step 1 - Determine Your Power Consumption Demands, We have provided a chart that lists typical power consumption demands of common devices which you can use as a guide, Solar Electricity, Photovoltaic Systems and Components, Grid-Connected Solar Electric Systems, Off-Grid (Stand Alone) Solar Electric Systems, PV Modules, PV Inverters, PV Chargers, PV Mounting. Graphing Calculator Guide for the TI-83/84 Plus The following pages describe how to use the calculator to graph functions, use some of the matrix menu, use scientific notation, and other various keys. You can also calculate numbers to the power of large exponents less than 1000, negative exponents, and real numbers or decimals for exponents. Knowing your power requirements and the time of year you want to use the system is vital to this step. Power calculator for Independent T-test or paired t-test. Simple Machines, IMA, AMA, and Efficiency Worksheet Ideal Mechanical Advantage IMA 1. angle at which work d. Be sure to show all calculation work in the space provided. By definition, ERP is the abbreviation for Effective Radiated Power that is directed in a given direction. Building Design Calculation Worksheet. Since the impedance is the total opposition to ac, the apparent power is that power the voltage source "sees. Suitable for grades 4 - 6, Power Football lets you play football while solving math problems. Ohm’s Law and Power Equation Practice Worksheet 12. It comes with the standard library of math & trig functions and commonly used. (Use your electromagnetic spectrum) C = λν E = hν. Logged in members can use the Super Teacher Worksheets filing cabinet to save their favorite worksheets. An Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Formula Based on Optical Coherence Tomography: A Pilot Study. What you write here for calculation of power in single and three phase transformer p= √3×v×I is this is right because we know active power denotation is by s. The Think Sheets are synchronized to readings from The Physics Classroom Tutorial and to missions of the Minds On Physics program. Nebraska Child Support Guidelines including Child Support Worksheets Child support calculator (designed by Advanced Legal Software, Omaha). Although the nominal voltage of the power supply is 24 VDC, it is reasonable to assume that if it switches to batteries as a secondary power supply, the voltage will decrease or degrade over the required supply time. Simple Machines, IMA, AMA, and Efficiency Worksheet Ideal Mechanical Advantage IMA 1. They can be used to empower CACFP providers and operators with the knowledge, skills, and expertise to implement the updated CACFP meal. Work, Power and Energy Worksheet. Calculations based on power equations would suggest either zero watts of power dissipated or infinite power dissipation, depending on which equation you chose to calculate power with. During an emergency is not the time to discover your home's wattage needs. The PADD does not guarantee the correctness of any results. The calculator usually resembles an online worksheet. It's a must tool for estimating the power consumption of a modern desktop PC. net offers you the most accurate PC power consumption calculator on the web for free. These Exponents Worksheets are a good resource for students in the 5th Grade through the 8th Grade. You must complete and submit a FAFSA to apply for federal student aid and for most state and college aid. Please do not submit this form with your application. The Index Convention for Roots - The nth root of a number is the number to the power of 1/n. Ohm's law calculator online. Knowing your power requirements and the time of year you want to use the system is vital to this step. Indig Enterprises, Inc. Physics Worksheet Work and Energy Section: Name: Mr. The PowerPlay Power Analyzer has access to the implemented design details to produce more accurate results. Notes/Worksheets. The electric power consumed by a circuit with one light bulb is 3 W. Individual values must be integers between -2147483648 and 2147483647, separated by commas, spaces, tabs or newlines. These worksheet produces 12 problems per page. User manuals, specification sheets, CAD drawings and more. You may understand that 3 dB is considered a just noticeable change in volume level. Standards and Design Criteria. GAR IS BASED ON A TEAM DISCUSSION TO UNDERSTAND AND EVALUATE THE RISKS ATTENDANT TO A MISSION AND HOW THEY WILL BE MANAGED. In a game of football, Hobbes runs at Calvin at 11 m/s. Plaster, USA (ret) In a previous article I explained how to convert inches of bullet drop or wind drift. Energy Diagrams Worksheet. 6 Attach the wave generator to input A of the oscilloscope and the AC terminals of a power pack set to 2 or 4 volts to input B. We summarize these calculations in the following worksheet: I need assistance with how to plug in the numbers for the Statistical Power and Sample Size option. This is a list of the equations which you might need to use for your GCSE Physics Exam. Show ALL equations, work, units, and significant figures in performing the following calculations. Download Power Unit Converter our powerful software utility that helps you make easy conversion between more than 2,100 various units of measure in more than 70 categories. The exponent of a number says how many times to use the number in a multiplication. Without a calculator, use the laws of indices to help you evaluate the following: (a) 6 4 2 (b) 91/ 32 (c) 64 1/ 3 (d) 4 28 (e) 5 3 3 3 (f) 1/4 1/2 16 4 (g) 2 0 2 2 (h) 1/2 1 25 5 2. We help businesses of all sizes operate more efficiently and delight customers by delivering defect-free products and services. Use these worksheets to help students learn about statistics and creating box-and-whisker plots. Please check back often for new topics and features!. This is a list of the equations which you might need to use for your GCSE Physics Exam. The transformer is the most common application of the concept of mutual inductance. Example: Consider the following hypothesis test. Thanks & regards Indra naryan [email protected] User manuals, specification sheets, CAD drawings and more. However, the most important factor that influences Excel calculation speed is still the way your worksheet is designed and built. 4 moles of sulfur? 3) How many moles are in 22 grams of argon? 4) How many grams are in 88. This estimated tax penalty calculator can be used by anyone to provide Form 2210 calculations. Power = Energy ÷ Time = 450 ÷ 8 = 56·25 W. The concepts of related to statistical power are described here, but sadly, the cool interactive Java applet is no longer supported by browsers. Preview Print Answers. Save calculations securely and retrieve them later or share them with other parties to the case or your attorney. Calculate your DC Loads: The basis for creating a functional marine electrical system is to understand how much electricity you consume in a day. Electrical Load calculations are required for equipment sizing from generators to switchgear to transformers and power system studies. Then the free budget planner worksheet will automatically show your income and expenses and if you have a surplus or deficit at the end of each month. Mission 5 - Energy and the Environment PDF 1MB. Choose a specific grade level below to view all of our math worksheets available for that level. Power of a Power Property Power of a Product Property Negative Exponent Property Zero Exponent Property Quotient of Powers Property Power of a Quotient Property Properties of Exponents. Welcome to the Percents math worksheet page where we are 100% committed to providing excellent math worksheets. When one power is raised to another, we multiply exponents: This is true for all kinds of exponents, positive and negative (and as we will see later, fractional). View PowerSmart™ Series >. This worksheet may be used to calculate your repeater system’s transmit Effective Radiated Power (ERP) Use this calculation when filing for a repeater coordination. Energy Transfer by Appliances • Describe how different domestic appliances transfer energy. Watts Calculator Worksheet To calculate how much power you plan to use, simply estimate your daily usage of each appliance , and multiply watts- look on data plate or manual of appliance, by hours to fill the Watts-Hours column on the right. A horse performs 15000 joules of work pulling a wagon for 20 seconds. Physics 01-01 Intro and Units. Students need to fill in the table with the missing values for each of the problems. The chapter headings refer to Calculus, Sixth Edition by Hughes-Hallett et al. You can generate the worksheets either in html or PDF format — both are easy to print. The electric power consumed by a circuit with one light bulb is 3 W. How do I calculate battery life allowing for duty cycle? These calculations are probably within ±20% of the real answer. This worksheet follows the logic. Multiplication and division round by least number of significant figures. You can resolve basic heat power requirement tasks in a few seconds. This worksheet gives students practice on calculating the tip amount.
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